The establishment of any branch is a consistent change of an every stage.
The stage of development of cell technologies inextricably is connected with:
3. The culture of tissues and cells, medical embryology, reproductology, tissue engineering
First transfusion from person to person was carried in 1819. Blood was warmed in a specially designed apparatus to slow its clotting.
In 1898 Harrison provided an optimal environment for the viability of the spinal cord fragment's cells during several days. In 1902 Jacques Loeb made in vitro fertilization (IVF) in a sea urchin. This manipulation was performed in humans in 1978. Avrorov and Timofeyevsky maintained the viability of blood leucocytes of a patient who had leukemia at a Military Medical Academy in 1913.
In 1990 Eduard Donald Tomas won Nobel Prize for successful transplantation of a bone marrow to a human. Still one tries to create an emergency supply of cells which can be transplanted to save more people's lives. There was an idea to cultivate blood cells. But hematopoietic cells need more complicated conditions than just connective tissues, they can't grow in the artificial environment. Friedenstein conducted a similar experiment and discovered that, if the dead tissue was removed, a colored cell colony would be seen. This way he discovered the mesenchymal cells responsible for the recovery of other tissues: bone, fat, cartilage and connective.
It was also found out that stem cells were formed after the first division of the zygote which were responsible not only for division, growth, differentiation, but also for the formation of special structures. Also scientists have discovered that there is a strategic reserve almost in every tissue which can be used for recovery.
In 2008 Yamanakova published a work about getting cells with iPS. These are bone marrow's mesenchymal cells, immune system cells, bone marrow's nucleated cells, skin cells, cord blood cells and so on. Mostly a patient is a donor of those cells to himself.
Nowadays there's a transplantation of hematopoietic cells of a bone marrow and IVF in cell technology, use of human’s own fibroblasts in cosmetology, use of some cord blood cells for correction of some neurological diseases and transplantation of tissue-engineering trachea.