The article is devoted to the analysis of respiratory diseases, its main types and reasons of their occurrence. Also general characteristics of some respiratory diseases, their frequency in children and adults are described in the article. Finally, medical methods of preventive treatment of such diseases are discussed as an example of effective therapy.
Dzheyranova M.O., Soltaeva M.A.
Respiratory diseases: special features and ways of treatment
ФГБОУ ВО Саратовский ГМУ им. В.И. Разумовского Минздрава России,
Кафедра иностранных языков
Научный руководитель: Коваленко В.С.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of respiratory diseases, its main types and reasons of their occurrence. Also general characteristics of some respiratory diseases, their frequency in children and adults are described in the article. Finally, medical methods of preventive treatment of such diseases are discussed as an example of effective therapy.
Keywords: respiratory diseases, pneumonia, asthma, pleurisy, bronchiectasis
The respiratory system is composed of nasal passages, larynx (throat), air-vessel, bronchus, lungs and pleural membranes (tunica conjunctiva that covers lungs). The respiratory system facilitates the absorption of oxygen in the organism, its transportation into the bloodstream and letting carbon dioxide out.
The respiratory illnesses are frequent, that is why studying this problem is especially relevant nowadays. The main reason for respiratory system illness progression among people is the presence of pathogens. They are viruses, bacteria, fungus and, in less incident cases, parasites. Besides the listed problems, another important factor that incites the respiratory illnesses is allergens. This case observes indoor allergens such as dust and domestic mites that often cause bronchial asthma.
All respiratory diseases own some general characteristics that will be discussed further in the article.
Pneumonia is an acute infectious-inflammatory disease that affects lung tissues. Inflammation process affects the alveoli and results in filling them with liquid. Pneumonia might be caused by various etiological agents as viruses, bacteria, fungus, achaea, rickettsia. Pneumonia is characterized by severe acute disease. During the disease, there might be observed such general intoxication symptoms as temperature rise and general weakness along with a cough, shortness of breath and pain in the chest.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of air passage containing an allergic component. Throughout this disease, the bronchial permeability may be observed and its lumens narrowing as well. The main disease expressions are choking attack, cough, rales, labored breathing.
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) is non-allergic nature inflammation of bronchi that is followed by bronchi narrowing causing in normal respiratory metabolism disorder. The main symptoms of COLD are cough with sputum and shortness of breath.
Multiple bronchiectasis is chronic disease that is followed by bronchi expansion in lower lungs and its suppuration. The main symptoms of multiple bronchiectasis are cough with purulent sputum, shortness of breath, pain in the chest. Among respiratory distress-syndrome it can be outlined an acute respiratory failure caused by serious lung injuries at any reason and effecting in pulmonary edema of non-coronary origin and labored breathing.
Thromboembolia of the Pulmonary Artery (PATE) is a disease when there is the embolism of the pulmonary artery by a blood clot (formed in great blood circulation circle) brought by bloodstock into the lungs’ vessels. PATE’s Patients mainly complain for a sudden chest pain, cough, shortness of breath, dizziness, heartbeat.
Pleurisy is a disease when the pleura inflammation happens (tunica conjunctiva that covers lungs). This disease is the result of many other respiratory illnesses. There are two types of pleurisy: dry and pericardial. The symptoms of pericardial pleurisy are heavy feeling in the chest, shortness of breath, cough. The reason is the accumulation of effusion within the pulmonary pleurae. In the case of dry pleurisy patients usually complain for the chest pain at the time of cough, while turning, subfebrile fever. The reason for these symptoms is the formation of the fibrin thread on the pulmonary pleurae.
Taking into consideration the fact that all the respiratory system illnesses are the most common ones, both for kids and for adults, its care and preventive treatment must be as clear and adequate as possible. In case of respiratory illness not being diagnosed in time, the sequences might be cures for a longer period resulting in therapy added complexity.
As for medical methods of therapy, they are used in complex. There include causal treatment (when medicine eliminate the cause of the illness), symptomatic therapy (when symptoms are eliminated) and supporting treatment which deals with recovering the functions being damaged during the illness. However, the treatment may be prescribed only by medical professional according to the results of complex investigation. In the majority of cases antibiotics are prescribed, which are effective against the particular etiologic agent.
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