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General issues of respiratory tract diseases

ID: 2018-03-4451-A-16805
Оригинальная статья (свободная структура)
ФГБОУ ВО Саратовский ГМУ им. В.И. Разумовского Минздрава России, кафедра иностранных языков


The article is devoted to the analysis of most common respiratory diseases, importance of their study and negative factors that affect the activity of respiratory system. Also the article states necessary steps of diagnosis of respiratory diseases and treatment by way of medicine for better results. 

Ключевые слова

respiratory diseases, symptoms, asthma, pneumonia, chronic.


The role of the respiratory tract in a human body is very important, because lungs fill the whole body with oxygen, and this is the reason why people live. The relevance of this study is of high value, because according to the statistics respiratory diseases occupy the third place after oncology and diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Nowadays, when the air is polluted with harmful wastes, hazardous industry and many other factors negatively affect the environment and, as the result, activity of the respiratory system. Scientists came to the conclusion that people who have been smoking for more than ten years caused severe damage to their body, especially lungs, which have a tendency to develop various diseases and infections due to harmful effects.

All respiratory diseases have unpleasant symptoms and dangerous consequences. The most common respiratory diseases are acute respiratory infections, found in both adults and children. Let us consider some of them.

More than 10 million people suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This is a respiratory disease associated with the chronic bronchitis, which is often caused by infections and smoking. The main symptoms of the disease are daily cough, chronic sputum, torturous dyspnea, persistent bronchitis. The disease manifests itself in a mild form, not accompanied by obvious symptoms. Then moderate and severe stages develop, accompanied by a significant deterioration in health. Later, permanent changes can occur in case of the absence of treatment.

Bronchial asthma that equally affects both adults and children is the next in the frequency of extension among diseases of respiratory system. The causes of the disease are bad ecological environment, professional activity, malnutrition, infection, stress, alcohol, genetic predisposition, etc.

Particularly, it is worth mentioning exogenous bronchial asthma, which develops as a result of the influence of an allergen in the form of animal hairs, pollen, and mold fungi. The disease manifests itself in labored respiration with whistling and wheezing, shortness of breath, and paroxysmal cough. In the process of bronchiectasis development, bronchi dilate, sputum stagnates and breaks the lung tissue. The main symptoms of it are full breath and partial exhalation. The patient, who suffers from the disease, tries to pump more and more air with each breath, the lungs become full and their cells break as the air does not come back.

The failure in the gene of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator causes a disease – cystic fibrosis, occurring in more than 5% of people. This defect is inherited. The main symptom of the disease is mucus secretion, which causes very unpleasant consequences.

Pneumonia is one of the most frequent and dangerous consequences of ingress of pathogens. This disease is caused by gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, mycoplasma, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is very dangerous and unpredictable, as it can quickly cause death.

Each disease of the respiratory system has its own peculiarities and differences. However, there are general symptoms that signal abnormalities in these organs:

·        Shortness of breath: objective, subjective, pathological, physiological, severe;

·        Cough: non-productive (dry), productive (wet), chronic;

·        Hemoptysis: as a result of diseases of respiratory system or pathology of cardiovascular system;

·        Pain: all diseases of respiratory system are accompanied by pains that have a different nature and duration depending on the act of breathing, body position, etc.

All of the above-mentioned symptoms can be associated with respiratory diseases, but their cause cannot be determined without diagnosis. Therefore, when such symptoms appear, it is necessary to undergo a series of examinations in a medical institution. In such cases, self-medication is strictly forbidden.

Respiratory diseases are severe and require careful diagnosis on the initial stage include the following steps:

- examination of chest for the presence and localization of protuberances, listening to the patient’s breath, determining its rhythmicity, frequency, depth;

- palpation reveals the power of vocal tremor, strengthened with pneumonia and weakened with pleurisy;

- assessment of breathing during auscultation, determination of wheezing;

- instrumental diagnostics;

- laboratory diagnostics.

Respiratory diseases are treated with the use of medications, treatment procedures and lifestyle adjustments, most often in a hospital under the supervision of physicians.


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