Methods of fight with epidemics in the Russian Empire
Рябова Т.Ю., Зенина И.В.
ГБОУ ВПО Саратовский ГМУ им. В.И. Разумовского Минздрава РФ
Кафедра иностранных языков
В данной работе обсуждаются методы борьбы с эпидемиями в Российской Империи в 17-19 веках.
For many centuries fight with the epidemics consisted of processing, blessings, encircling of the infected streets and yards, burning of corpses and things of patients. Though some doctors had tried to treat diseased people – to give them decoctions, to burst bubonic boils and so on – it led only to a greater spread of the disease.
In the 17th century the notion of the general quarantine has already existed. According to the notion the city border was closed by the official decree. Sometimes it helped, but more often it did not. Isolation affected negatively on a city economy, ban on agricultural works led to hungry winters. It became the reason of new epidemics – scurvy and typhus. The fear of people to fall ill made them to get out epidemic regions.
More advanced fight form with epidemics consisted of attempts of disinfection of water and air, things and rooms. Houses were fumigated with resins and curative herbs. Messages from settlements under quarantine copied several times at intermediate stations to prevent a spread of infection through the paper. Money washed out in vinegar.
Since Kievan Rus it was paid much attention to personal hygiene. It reduced the chance of an epidemic if not plague and smallpox but of dysentery at least. There were baths in many houses in regions, rich in water resources. Frequent washing helped to avoid infection with louses, fleas and other parasites.
The most effective measure was isolation of patients, but not the prevention or treatment. The overall low standard of living, lack of adequate drugs and lower level of culture of the population promoted an unsuccessful infectious situation. Also working conditions of the practicing doctors were extremely hard.
System research of epidemics began on the basis of territorial medicine. “The charter about quarantines”, published in 1886 regulated establishment of cordons in case of a disease outbreak, obliged to create “the quarantine commissions” of doctors and the educated people, provided the introduction of the specific documents confirming absence of patients during different expeditions.
In general fight with epidemics in the territory of the Russian Empire was quite effective for those diseases which were transferred by air – drop way and “loved” dampness. Wide streets of the cities, mass character of rural sector and the nature fought with such diseases. The diseases connected with hunger and a low standard of living, however, were spread. Competent fight with infections began in the end of the 19th century and was connected with active research work of domestic scientists.