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Morphine Addiction in Classic Literature (According to “Morphine” by M.Bulgakov)

ID: 2013-02-213-T-2651

Morphine Addiction in Classic Literature (According to “Morphine” by M.Bulgakov)

Yermakova Y.A.

Supervisor: ass.Mikheeva N.V.

Saratov State Medical University n.a. V.I.Razumovskiy

Morhine addicted characters are not often met in classic literature. Predilection for opium   is described in the book “Morphine” by Mikhail Bulgakov. Young country doctor Polyakov first   took morphine to relieve an abdominal pain. The injection helped him a lot – “That terrible pain   has stopped 7 minutes after the shot”, he says. Also doctor found that it also relieved his despair   over the loss of his lover, an opera singer in Moscow. At the initial stage of a morfinizm addicts   experience euphoria, feeling of pleasure and elation alternating with pleasant hallucinations -   positive mental inclination is formed. That’s why it’s hard for Polyakov to realize he needs to   stop using morphine, it relieved his loneliness and improved his work.   Further the stage of a negative mental inclination develops: Dr.Polyakov needs morphine   to get rid of low mood and feeling sick. “All unpleasant feelings stop", he assures.   However, the doctor is not aware that the attraction to the drug became a serious   syndrome. "I can’t stand it anymore. Just ... easier ... Three syringe of a 3% solution. This   is enough for me until midnight." Along with relief taking its effect Polyakov experiences   typical for addicts self-deception: "Sooner or later, I'll quit!". The doctor has formed a physical   dependence, when discontinuation of morphine leads to withdrawal symptoms, "big concern,   disturbing sad condition, irritability, memory easing, and hallucinations".   Therefore stage of development of somatic pathology is being developed. The drug   doesn’t cause euphoria and only plays role of obstination reliever. His appearance changes,   he loses a lot of weight and turns very pale. His skinabscesses on the limbs become persistent,   uncontrollable vomiting and hiccups occur. Hallucinations become more frustrating.   Opioid addicts often express deep depression, the highest suicide rate is typical for drug   addiction of this type. It happened with Dr.Polyakov. He failed in his attempts to break the habit   at a clinic in Moscow. "It would be shameful to prolong such a life even for a moment," - says   the main character before shooting himself.   The first injection of morphine was performed by Dr. Polyakov to stop the significant   pain syndrome. However, the second and subsequent have been shot to prevent the terrible pain.   Instead of quitting he gradually increased the dose until he became hopelessly dependent on the   substance. Eventually there is nothing in his life but the drug and Polyakov suicides.

Ключевые слова

Drug addiction
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